The 2.0 version of the SIN List adds 22 endocrine disrupting chemicals. These are identified by ChemSec as Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC) according to the criteria in REACH solely due to their endocrine disrupting properties. Below these 22 substances are presented, their endocrine disrupting properties, how they are used and in what type of products they can be found.
3-benzylidene camphor, CAS 15087-24-8
3-benzylidene camphor is a UV-filter and considered a potent xenoestrogen. It also affects the immune system and brain function. Rats exposed to the substance before birth show delayed onset of male puberty, irregular oestrous cycles and decreased bodyweight among other effects.
4-methylbenzylidene camphor, CAS 36861-47-9
This UV-filter is regarded as one of the most potent of the oestrogenic UV-filters. It is also an antiandrogen and affects progesterone and thyroid hormones. In rats it affects reproductive behaviour in females and testicular development in the male offspring of exposed mothers. 4-methylbenzylidene camphor has been found in human milk and in natural waters as well as in wild fish. The Danish EPA advises restricted use for children under 12 years old.
Synonyms: 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor, 4-MBC
4-nitrophenol, CAS 100-02-7
4-nitrophenol is used in dyes and to darken leather. It is also used as a building block for the manufacture of drugs and pesticides and is released from diesel combustion. In rats, the substance is oestrogenic and an antiandrogen. It alters levels of several sex hormones and affects both female and male reproductive organs.
4,4´-dihydroxybenzophenone, CAS 611-99-4
4,4´-dihydroxybenzophenone is a UV-filter which is oestrogenic but exerts a stronger effect as an antiandrogen. It causes aneuploidy, a chromosome abnormality and thereby affects the reproductive success.
Benzophenone-1, CAS 131-56-6
Benzophenone-1 is a UV-filter which can act as a weak oestrogen or more potently as an antiandrogen. It has been detected in indoor dust and the effluent of sewage treatment plants.
Synonyms: 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, resbenzophenone
Benzophenone-2, CAS 131-55-5
Benzophenone-2 is a UV-filter which affects several endocrine systems. It is oestrogenic and an antiandrogen and affects thyroid functions. It affects immune function and metabolism. Benzophenone-2 has been connected to a birth defect (hypospadia) in which the opening of the urethra is on the underside, rather than at the end of, the penis.
Synonyms: BP-2, 2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone
Benzophenone-3, CAS 131-57-7
Benzophenone-3 is commonly used as a UV-filter and is detected in urine, human milk, surface waters, and fish. Benzophenone-3 is an endocrine disrupter which affects multiple systems. It is oestrogenic as well as an antiandrogen and antiprogesterone. It affects the immune system, the adrenal and pituitary glands and the thyroid hormones. Some of the effects occur at very low doses. In humans, high urinary benzophenone-3 concentrations during pregnancy have been correlated with decreased birth weight for girls and increased birth weight for boys.
Synonyms: BP-3, oxybenzone, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone
Butylparaben, CAS 94-26-8
Butylparaben is a preservative used in personal care products. It is one of the most oestrogenic parabens and also affects thyroid hormones. Butylparaben has been found in human urine and indoor dust. Butylparaben affects sperm motility, sperm count, and fat metabolism. Pregnant rats exposed to butylparaben show higher concentrations of the substance in the amniotic fluid and foetus than in the mother's blood plasma, indicating bioaccumulation in the foetus.
Dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), CAS 84-61-7
Dicyclohexyl phthalate is a plasticiser with numerous uses. It is found in cellulose and PVC products, in paints, inks and in food packaging. It has repeatedly been detected in household dust. DCHP is one of the most oestrogenic phthalates and also affects thyroid hormones and neurotransmitters in the brain. It affects metabolism at very low concentrations. Rats fed with DCHP give birth to male offspring with severe reproductive disorders.
Diethyl phthalate (DEP), CAS 84-66-2
Diethyl phthalate has numerous uses, including in plastic products and in cosmetics as a fragrance carrier. Diethyl phthalate functions as an oestrogen and affects thyroid hormones, skeletal formation, and metabolism. Studies show wide variance between individual human exposure to diethyl phthalate and that perfume is an important route of exposure. The substance has also been found in environmental water samples. Levels of diethyl phthalate metabolites in human urine samples show correlations with insulin resistance, obesity, premature breast development, and breast cancer.
Dihexyl phthalate (DHP), CAS 84-75-3
Dihexyl phthalate is used as a plasticiser and can be found in many different products including tool handles and PVC flooring. Dihexyl phthalate affects thyroid function, the nervous system, bone formation and is oestrogenic. Male progeny of rats dosed during pregnancy with dihexyl phthalate show severe malformations to their reproductive organs.
Synonyms: Di-n-hexylphthalate (DnHP)
Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, CAS 5466-77-3
Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate is a UV-filter. This substance affects several hormones, including oestrogen, progesterone, and thyroid hormones. The progeny of female rats exposed to ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate during pregnancy and lactation suffer from a variety of hormonal and neurological deficits, including decreased sperm count and effects on behaviour and learning. Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate has been found in human milk, in natural waters and it bioaccumulates in aquatic organisms.
Synonyms: Octyl methoxycinnamate 2-ethyl-hexyl-4methoxycinnamate, Octinoxate, EHMC
Metam natrium, CAS 137-42-8
Metam natrium is used in paints, leather tanning as a preservative and a broad-spectrum microbiocide. Exposure to metam natrium can cause developmental disorders and malformations, affecting brain signalling, the immune system and behaviour. In 1991 there was a large spill of metam natrium into the Sacramento river in the USA. The spill wiped out the entire aquatic ecosystem and caused respiratory disorders and skin irritation in people living near the river.
Synonyms: metam sodium, Vapam, sodium methyldithiocarbamate
Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), CAS 1634-04-4
MTBE is used as an extraction solvent and as a fuel component in gasoline to raise the octane number. Contamination of ground water with MTBE has repeatedly occurred in the USA. MTBE is very water soluble and does not readily degrade in the environment. A common route of exposure is through inhalation at a gasoline station. The substance is an endocrine disruptor with a distinctive and unpleasant taste. It affects the male and female reproductive systems in both rats and mice, and also impairs learning and memory.
Pentachlorophenol, CAS 87-86-5
Pentachlorophenol is used mainly as a wood preservative but is also used in glues and starches. It has been widely used for many years and can be found in both human and environmental samples. Lately usage has declined because of concern about its health and environmental effects. Pentachlorophenol has shown to disrupt thyroid function and also to interfere with sex hormones, brain development and metabolism.
Perchloroethylene, CAS 127-18-4
The main use of perchloroethylene is in dry-cleaning. People living near or working in dry-cleaners often have measurable levels of perchloroethylene in the blood. Pregnant mice exposed to perchloroethylene show reduced uterine weight and have smaller foetuses, while exposed young males showed altered locomotive behaviour. Perchloroethylene has also been shown to affect brain signalling, affecting altering acetylcholine levels and interfering with calcium channels. Epidemiological studies of dry-cleaning workers have found correlations between perchloroethylene exposure and neurological disorders.
Synonyms: Perc, Tetrachloroethylene
Propylparaben, CAS 94-13-3
Propylparaben is a preservative used in personal care products. Propylparaben has oestrogenic and antiandrogenic properties, decreasing sperm production in male rats. According to a recent report from the Danish National Food Institute, estimated blood levels of propylparaben in children are similar to those which cause endocrine disruption in young animals. Propylparaben is very commonly used, it has been found in human urine samples, human milk and rivers.
Synonyms: propyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, E216
Quadrosilan, CAS 33204-76-1
Quadrosilan is used as bearing grease and in breast implants. It has shown to be a potent endocrine disruptor in animal studies in several species. It has antiandrogenic effects, disrupting the formation of sperm and is also oestrogenic, disrupting female reproductive function.
Resorcinol, CAS 108-46-3
Resorcinol has numerous uses, including rubber and resins, in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and hair dye. Resorcinol affects the thyroid gland, thyroid hormones and glucose metabolism.
Tert-butylhydroxyanisole (BHA), CAS 25013-16-5
The primary use for BHA is as an antioxidant and preservative in food, food packaging, animal feed, cosmetics, rubber, and petroleum products. BHA is also commonly used in medicines. BHA has been reported to have both oestrogen as well as antioestrogenic effects. Rats fed with BHA show reduced levels of testosterone and thyroid hormones and malformed sperm. Their offspring were smaller, had delayed sexual maturation and smaller reproductive organs compared to controls. Similar effects have been observed in pigs.
Synonyms: butylated hydroxanisole, E320
Thiram, CAS 137-26-8
Thiram is used in industry, for example in rubber products manufacturing. It is also a crop fungicide and an animal repellent, applied to protect e.g. fruit trees from grazing. Thiram has a number of endocrine-disrupting effects, especially during early development. It interferes with noradrenaline which in turn affects a hormone (LH) , resulting in delayed ovulation in females. It also affects fat metabolism.
Synonyms: tetramethylthiuram disulphide
Zineb, CAS 12122-67-7
Zineb is used in paints, in surface treatments and as a pesticide. Zineb is highly toxic to reproduction and pregnant women are advised not to handle the substance. It also disrupts thyroid function and brain development. Occupational exposure to zineb has been correlated to Parkinson's disease and irregular oestrus cycles among other disorders.
Synonyms: Zinc ethylenbis (dithiocarbamate)